Sandra E. Black is a Professor of Economics and International and Public Affairs at Columbia University. Previously, she held positions at University of Texas at Austin, UCLA, and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. She is currently a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), a Research Affiliate at IZA, and a Nonresident Senior Fellow at Brookings Institution. She served as a Member of the Council of Economic Advisers from August 2015 to January 2017. Her research focuses on the role of early life experiences on the long-run outcomes of children, as well as issues of gender and discrimination.