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K–12 programs to reduce the intergenerational transmission of poverty

Children from the lowest income quintile begin kindergarten more than one standard deviation lower in both reading and math skills than children in the top quintile.1 They are also below children in the top quintile in academic work habits, and above them in antisocial behavior. These gaps persist, and may increase, as students move through their schooling careers. This article reviews past and present programs intended to reduce these achievement gaps, and identifies promising avenues to be explored in the future.


Education & Training, Inequality & Mobility, Intergenerational Poverty, K-12 Education