At a workshop on the “Economic Causes and Consequences of Child Maltreatment” in August 2015, a group of leading researchers, policymakers, and practitioners discussed important new insights into the causal mechanisms behind the strong connection between poverty and child maltreatment and child protective system involvement. The Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) hosted the workshop, which was cosponsored by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. Papers and discussions also explored the role of prevention in mediating the negative effects of poverty on child maltreatment or involvement with child protective services, and what research reveals about how experiencing maltreatment in childhood can affect education, employment, and other economic outcomes in adulthood. Understanding the role of poverty in child protective system involvement is key to developing effective prevention and intervention efforts. IRP Affiliates Kristen Slack, Lawrence Berger, and Jennifer L. Noyes co-organized the event and coedited a special issue of the journal Children and Youth Services Review in which papers discussed at the conference were published in January 2017.