Retirement Security

Women more likely than men to face poverty during retirement, Associated Press, July 10, 2016, Chicago Tribune: “During their working years, women tend to earn less than men, and when they retire, they’re more likely to live in poverty. These are women who raised children and cared for sick and elderly family members, often taking what savings and income they do have and spending it on things besides their own retirement security. The National Institute on Retirement Security, a nonprofit research center, reports that women are 80 percent more likely than men to be impoverished at age 65 and older. Women age 75 to 79 are three times more likely…”

Gender Pay Gap

Obama moves to close gender wage gap, By Jim Puzzanghera and Evan Halper, January 29, 2016, Los Angeles Times: “The first bill President Obama signed after taking office in 2009 was designed to help close the pay gap between men and women.  But saying progress has been slow, Obama announced a new plan Friday to try to ensure that women earn the same as men for doing the same job.  The proposal, which doesn’t need legislative approval, would require businesses with at least 100 employees to submit annual pay data by gender, race and ethnicity in an effort to find firms that the White House said are ‘unlawfully shortchanging workers…’”

Employment Gender Gap in Poor Neighborhoods

The striking power of poverty to turn young boys into jobless men, By Emily Badger and Christopher Ingraham, January 29, 2016, Washington Post: “Men are more likely to work than women. This has been true in the United States for generations and for entrenched reasons that have to do with ‘family values’ and workplace policies. It’s true because the culture says women should care for their children and because paying for child care is expensive. And it’s true because of discrimination.  The durability of that pattern makes a recent finding by economists at Harvard and Stanford universities all the more puzzling: Among the poor, the opposite is now true. Girls who grow up in poor families are more likely than the boys who grow up with them to work as adults…”

Wage Gap – Colorado

Report: Persistent wage gap contributing to poverty among women, By Alicia Wallace, October 27, 2015, Denver Post: “In 2004, the last time the Institute for Women’s Policy Research released state-by-state wage gap data, Colorado’s women earned a median salary of $32,200, or 78.7 percent of their male counterparts.  More than a decade later, women are earning 80 cents for every dollar a man makes for the same work…”

Family Disadvantage

A disadvantaged start hurts boys more than girls, By Claire Cain Miller, October 22, 2015, New York Times: “Boys are falling behind. They graduate from high school and attend college at lower rates than girls and are more likely to get in trouble, which can hurt them when they enter the job market. This gender gap exists across the United States, but it is far bigger for poor people and for black people. As society becomes more unequal, it seems, it hurts boys more.  New research from social scientists offers one explanation: Boys are more sensitive than girls to disadvantage. Any disadvantage, like growing up in poverty, in a bad neighborhood or without a father, takes more of a toll on boys than on their sisters. That realization could be a starting point for educators, parents and policy makers who are trying to figure out how to help boys — particularly those from black, Latino and immigrant families…”

Gender Pay Gap – California

California equal pay bill may be toughest in nation, By Samantha Masunaga, September 2, 2015, Los Angeles Times: “California’s new Fair Pay Act, which awaits Gov. Jerry Brown’s signature, may be the nation’s most aggressive attempt yet to close the salary gap between men and women. Supporters said the legislation, passed unanimously by the California Senate on Monday, closes loopholes that prevented enforcement of existing anti-discrimination law.  The bill ensures that male and female employees who perform ‘substantially similar’ work receive equal pay, even if their job titles aren’t the same or if they work in different offices for the same employer…”

Child Poverty and Opportunity – Buffalo, NY

Escaping poverty easier for children in Erie County than elsewhere, but girls face ‘opportunity gap’, By Charity Vogel, August 8, 2015, Buffalo News: “Children growing up poor in Erie County have a better chance to earn a higher income as adults than those in most other urban counties across the nation, according to a Harvard University study. In addition, children who move to Erie County improve their chances of escaping poverty, and they might someday earn paychecks that are thousands of dollars higher than those who remain in places like Baltimore, Chicago and Charlotte, N.C., the researchers found. In essence, the longer a child lives in Erie County, the better the odds the child will earn more as a young adult…”

Gender Wage Gap

Latinas’ gender wage gap is worst, study finds, By Katie Johnson, July 29, 2015, Boston Globe: “In Massachusetts, Hispanic women who clean offices and houses for a living make just 54 cents on the dollar compared with what male janitors make. Compared with their Hispanic male counterparts, Latina cleaners make just 59 percent. New research from the University of Massachusetts Boston shows that the already yawning gender wage gap becomes a chasm in lower-income jobs, particularly for Hispanic women…”

Gender Pay Gap

Size of gender pay gap varies by state, job, By Susan Milligan, January 23, 2014, Stateline: “Female workers don’t need to be told what numerous studies have concluded: Women, on average, are paid less than men, even when they are doing the same job. But where workers live also makes a difference. On average, women made an average of 80.9 cents for every dollar a male earned in 2012, according to recent statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. But from state to state, the numbers vary dramatically. Female workers in Wyoming, for example, earn just 65.5 percent of what men earn, worst of any state. In the nation’s capital, women fared best and are nearly at parity, making 94.8 cents on the male-earned dollar…”

Young Men and the Recession

Growing pains: Rate of young men struggling in careers alarmingly higher than for young women, By Elizabeth Stuart, June 2, 2012, Deseret News: “Every morning, they’re outside his bedroom door, marching their little action figures across the carpet and jabbering in cartoon voices, a reminder of everything he can’t control. He asked them to play elsewhere. He asked them to use quiet voices. But the three boys aren’t his children and this isn’t his house. Twenty-six years old and done with college, Austin Dent is back under his parent’s roof. In addition to his three nephews, he shares the space with his mom, dad, a sister, a brother-in-law and a three-legged dog. When he first lugged his things up the stairs after finishing his coursework at the University of Utah a year ago, he’d been gone so long his parents had redecorated his boyhood room with a vanity, girly trinkets and flowers. He didn’t rush to settle in. He was just in limbo, he told himself. Dozens of applications and six temporary jobs later, though, Dent has replaced the vanity with a video game console he bought in the classifieds. Now he half-jokingly, half-seriously describes that state of limbo as ‘perpetual…'”

Female-Headed Households – Wisconsin

Census shows big jump in women-led families in Wisconsin, By Dan Simmons and Nick Heynen, May 12, 2011, Wisconsin State Journal: “When Ally Moll had her daughter three years ago, she felt isolated. Her family lives in Florida and New York, and the girl’s father was out of the picture. So the Madison woman took her plight to an online classifieds board: ‘I’m a new mom and I’m alone. Does anyone want to hang out?’ It led to connections with many other moms in her situation and monthly social gatherings that continue today, perhaps not surprising given that the last decade brought a dramatic increase in women-led families here and across Wisconsin. In the state, the number of families headed by women with children and no husband increased 13 percent from 2000 to 2010, according to Census figures released Thursday. In Dane County, they’re up 23 percent. In Madison, it’s 22 percent. The data show a further decline in the traditional nuclear family approach, with married couples with kids comprising 19 percent of total Wisconsin households in 2010, down from 24 percent in 2000…”

Average Height of Poor Women – Africa

Height: Very poor women are shrinking, as are their chances at a better life, By Donald G. McNeil Jr., April 25, 2011, New York Times: “The average height of very poor women in some developing countries has shrunk in recent decades, according to a new study by Harvard researchers. Height is a reliable indicator of childhood nutrition, disease and poverty. Average heights have declined among women in 14 African countries, the study found, and stagnated in 21 more in Africa and South America. That suggests, the authors said, that poor women born in the last two decades, especially in Africa, are worse off than their mothers or grandmothers born after World War II…”

Federal Report on the Status of Women

  • White House marks Women’s History Month with 50-year progress report, By Daniel B. Wood, March 1, 2011, Christian Science Monitor: “Young women in America are more likely than men to have a college degree, and women’s earnings constitute a growing share of household income, but their wages still lag significantly behind those of men with comparable education, according to a report on the status of women released Tuesday by the White House. The White House released the report, which it called the ‘first comprehensive federal report on the status of women in almost 50 years,’ on the first day of Women’s History Month. It was 1963 when the Commission on Women, formed by President John F. Kennedy and chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, issued the first such report. That was the same year that ‘Dr. No,’ the first James Bond film, was shown in US theaters, Iranian women got to vote for the first time, and Sheriff Eugene ‘Bull’ Connor unleashed fire hoses and police dogs on African-American demonstrators in Birmingham, Ala…”
  • Gap remains between the sexes when it comes to income, By Lesa Jansen, March 1, 2011, CNN.com: “The earnings gap between men and women has narrowed, but a new White House report shows that on average women still only make about 75% as much as their male counterparts. The report released Tuesday shows that women have not only caught up with men in college attendance but in fact have surpassed them, yet that gain hasn’t translated into the pocketbook. Statistics also show women are more likely than men to live in poverty. This is the first comprehensive look at women’s status in American society in more than 50 years, according to the Obama administration. Valerie Jarrett, White House counselor and chair of the White House Council on Women and Girls, calls the report ‘a guidepost to help us move forward,’ and also says the data will affect future policy decisions…”

Gender Pay Gap

  • Closing the pay gap in Pennsylvania, By Ann Belser, August 6, 2010, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: “Women in Pennsylvania make nearly 21 cents on the dollar less than men in the state. It’s a gap that is slightly greater than the U.S. as a whole, in which women earn 80.2 cents for every dollar men make, according to a report released Thursday by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics. That gap is even greater in Pittsburgh, according to a study by the locally based Women and Girls Foundation. Elizabeth Waikman, a spokeswoman for the Women and Girls Foundation, said just three years ago, when the foundation held its first Equal Pay Day rally, women earned 70 cents for every dollar men earned; that has risen to 74 cents…”
  • Women make strides, but still trail men in wage comparisons, By James Haggerty, August 6, 2010, Scranton Times Tribune: “Average working women in Pennsylvania continue to earn less than 80 cents on every dollar of income for their male counterparts. New data from the U.S. Department of Labor show full-time female workers in the state in 2009 had average median weekly earnings of $654, which is 79 percent of the $825 median average for males. ‘Women have been talking about pay equity since they started talking about suffrage,’ said Elizabeth Randol, Ph.D., director of the regional Women and Money Project for the state treasurer’s office. ‘This is a very clear way of seeing what the lingering impacts are of institutional differences and the way women are treated in the work force.’ Women have made gains to close the gap in recent years, statistics show, but the disparity has a ripple effect surfacing in poverty numbers…”

Gender Gaps in Income and Higher Education

  • Women still earn less than men, but gap narrows, By Ruth Mantell, April 21, 2010, Philadelphia Inquirer: “Decades after women entered the labor force en masse, pay disparity between genders has fallen but not disappeared, according to a report from the Labor Department. For the first quarter of this year women had median usual weekly earnings of $665, or almost 79 percent of the $844 that men earned, according to the study released Tuesday, which was Equal Pay Day. In the first quarter of 2000, women earned about 76 percent of men’s income. ‘Not only has the education gap between men and women narrowed, but labor market experience has narrowed because women have been working more and more, and more consistently,’ said Harry Holzer, an economist at Georgetown University and the Urban Institute…”
  • Census says women equal to men in advanced degrees, By Hope Yen (AP), April 20, 2010, Washington Post: “Women are now just as likely as men to have completed college and to hold an advanced degree, part of an accelerating trend of educational gains that have shielded women from recent job losses. Yet they continue to lag behind men in pay. Among adults 25 and older, 29 percent of women in the U.S. have at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with 30 percent of men, according to 2009 census figures released Tuesday. Measured by raw numbers, women already surpass men in undergraduate degrees by roughly 1.2 million…”